The Right to Work: a EU overview - 2nd Mobility Week in Italy

17. 11. 12
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HUMREV Project – The Right to Work: a EU overview - 2nd Mobility Week in Italy 16th-22nd October 2016

Questions Finland Germany Italy Poland Spain
Documents that establish the right to work -ILO (UN’s Internat. Labour Organization)- Constitution and working legislation -Constitution (Art.12 & 74)-Book of industrial law (1977) -Constitution (1948) Labour Code (1974) -Constitution-Statute of the Rights for Workers (1980)-Labour Reform 2012
Organizations that help people to find a job - public employment- business services -Job information centre (BiZ)- job orientation at school- “BOGY” - 3 main employment agencies: ADECCO,Obiettivo Lavoro, In Job -Labour Office-Employment Agency-Training Institutions-Social DialogueInstitutions-Voluntary Labour Corp -main employment office belongs to the Ministry-regional agenciesSERVEF (in the Valencian Community)
Current unemployment situation 7,2% (August 2016)10% youngsters aged 16-25Youth Guarantee provides work / education within 3 months of unemployment 4.2% (July 2016) 11.4% (July 2016)45% Youth unemployment rate (<25 years) Nearly 8% (2016)(10% in 2014) *19.5% (July 2016)45% Youth unemployment rate (<25 years)
Minimum age to get a job 15 yrs 14 only with parents’permission -13 to 14 yrs – easy work, max 2 hours/day-15 to 17 yrs : max 8.5 hours/day, 5 days/week- >18 : same rules as adults 16 years -16 yrs - part time job-18 yrs - full time job-Vacation jobs for teenagers 18 years16 to 18 with parents’ consent
Average retirement age 63-68 years - Official retirement age65 years- actual retirement age:61.8 years average(67 years from 2029) 66.7 years public employees65.7 to 66.7 private employees66.1 to 66.7 autonomous jobEarly retirement:41 years+10 months contributions (women)42 years+10 months contributions (men)2% less pay 60-67 for women65-67 for menMinimal amount of pension = 880 PLN 65.4 years67 in 2027
Minimum salary guaranteed for unemployed people - depends on family situation- € 399 – adult (single) For people who earn less than € 3,000/year 650 PLN – in first 3 months830 PLN – in next months 497 / month (without children)664.75(with children)
Maternity leave 9 months From 6 weeks before and 12 weeks after baby’s birth65-67% pay 1 month before and 4 months after baby’s birth 12 months – fully paid 16 consecutive weeks( 6 weeks are mandatory)
Sick leave <=10 days full salary>10 days min €24/day -70% pay-10 days extra holidays if kids are sick Pay regulated by collective agreements paid 80% of regular salary 1-3 days = % pay4-20 days=60% pay>21 days = 75% pay
Paid holidays 5 weeks/year (tied to income) Approx. 29 days/year 32 days (public employees) 20 days – <10 years’ work26 days – > 10 years’ work 35 weeks
Gender pay gap *2015:Woman’s euro=83c. *2006= 23%2015=21% On average Women have a lower remuneration: between 10 and 30% less. Men may earn even 1000 PLN more than women Almost 25% less
The role of trade unions An established part in institutionalised decisions -role of connection between workers and their employers-protect workers’ rights -consist of employees -protect workers’ rights -ensure the compliance of labour laws-organise demonstrations and strikes-fight for job security, good working conditions,decent wage levels


In every country the reference document for the right to work is the Constitution except for Poland where there is a Labour code.

The organizations that help people to find a job are mainly agencies that may be public or private.

The countries in the South of Europe have the higher unemployment rate according to the latest EU reports.

The minimum age to get a job is 14 years of age in Finland and Germany, while in the other countries it is between 16 and 18.

In all countries the average retirement age is 63-64.

In almost all countries (except Finland) there is a sum given to unemployed people.

The maternity leave is recognized in every country but it ranges from 4 to 12 months according to the collective agreements.

Sick leave is guaranteed but it is paid differently according to each country’s legislation.

Holidays are paid from a minimum of 20 days to a maximum of 35.

The gender pay gap is present in each country and it ranges from 10% to 30% less compared to men’s pay.

In all countries Trade Unions still play an important role in the protection of workers’ right.